ukrainian english  
 
  The main Part | Archaeology | History | Written sources | Rest | Contacts

HISTORY

The settlement named Skvaryava was founded probably in XIII - XIY cent. in the period of Galych - Volyn State on the territory of Zvenygorod. According to an old legend the place was often visited by princes and boyars (princes` vassals) who came there for hunting. They used to bake or rather to fry their prey on a fire. Old Slavonic for "to fry" is "skvaryty". So the name originated from this word though a more probable version is related to the Slavonic and old Ruthenior "skvara" meaning "fire".


1. Military Camp Fortifications
Mid 17th Century

To guess why the settlement was named Skvaryava is not a difficult task. There is one more village having the same name (Skvaryava) in Zolochiv District of Lviv Region. Probably the name of the town Skvyra in Kyiv Region is of the same origin It was founded in the locality rich in raw materials used in production of bricks and tiles impossible without using fire. The exact time of founding New Skvaryava is rather difficult to define though it may be explained by the fact that inhabitants of the new village dealt with the same manufacturing as the people in the old one. The primary name of Chaykova Volya did not exist for a long time and disappeared under the pressure of life realities. Why was the village named so poetically? The answer to this question can be found in economic relations of that time. The name of Volya or Sloboda was applied to the settlements free of panshchine in the East of Ukraine. A person who founded a new settlement on the basis of Volosky Right ( a legal basis of Ukrainian villages) was called Chayka. For some period of time peasants did not pay taxes to landlords till Chayka was not deprived of his right and the village became dependent on the landowner's right. Since that time the village was not free and got the name of Nova Skvzryava. Taking into account the fact that the Academician Ivan Krypyakevich for the first time mentions the village of Stara Skvaryava in 1398, we can suppose that Nova Skvaryava existed at that time as well.


A temporary Church.
Remnants of the Church
of Our Lady Escape to Egypt.
Picture made in 1957.

There are extremely rare and interesting monuments of cultural heritage in Nova Skvaryava including partly ruined fortifications of a military camp dated back to the mid 17th century as well as remnants of a glass - house and a monastery of the late Middle Ages. Being further investigated they can contribute to the ancient history of the village and attract partisans of the past of our Motherland. The first object is located in the place called Antoniv bank on a hill having an even slightly declined to the west top in the form of a trapezium with dimensions of 0,45 x 0,2 x 0,3 km. The monument is protected by a ditch, ramparts and two practically ruined by modern cultivation bastions encircling it along the edge of the terrace. The letter are located in the eastern (wider) part of the hill. The entrance to the camp was probably between them.


Iconostasis made by the painter
Ivan Rutkovich.

Traces of a former glass - house are seen in the valley named Ivankove. Pieces of glass table-ware, as well as those of glass and slag of white, blue and white - green colours, fragments of typologically unidentified items from the same materials, pieces of foundries. The main product manufactured at the glass - house was undoubtedly window pane (obolonya) used in palaces, churches, monasteries, houses of low middle class citizens. Blower glass used for making vases, bottles, ink-bottles, bowls was also manufactured here.

Glass houses were mainly built in the vicinity of Middle Ages monasteries. It is confirmed by the following monument from the history of the village, traces of which have been found in the small village of Huta (Glass House) where a considerately ruined bank in the form of an arc and a ditch protecting the above - mentioned sacral object can be found. Their remnants have been preserved near the northern and eastern foot of a cape - like ledge of the first terrace on the left bank of a nameless brook. The monastery ceased to exist in 1775.


Landowner's House.
Built in 1708.

Except the monastery there was the Church of the Christmas in Nova Skvaryava, in Gorgans, consecrated on January 7, 1588. Nearly two centuries later the Church of Our Lady Escape to Egypt was built in this place, consecrated on January 8, 1767. The church was bought from Vassilianki sisters in the town of Zhovkva where it was built in 1693. There was an Iconostasis made by Ivan Rutkovich. In 1932 the church was dissembled and a bit later a church was built instead where it after of the altar was installed. In 1936 constructing of a new big store church started but it was banned by the Soviet Union authorities and was finished only in 1989. The church was consecrated on October 4, on the Holiday of Our Lady Pokrova. In 1997 on the Holiday of the Saint Trio a chapel was built in a small village of Guta to the west of the former monastery.


Temporary wooden church (to the left).
Unfinished building of a new church (in the centre).
Wooden bell-tower
built in 1748 (to the right)

Nova Svaryava priests did a considerable amount of cultural and enlightening work. In 1899 a reading - hall of Prosvita was opened under the guidance of the Father Josyph Karapovich, then under the guidance of the Father Dean Volodymyr Utrysko and the Father Stepan Haida. The son of the Nova Skvaryava priest Father Luka Oleskiv, was an active member of the Prosvita Society. He was a friend of Ivan Franko during his studies at Lviv University and remained his devoted friend during all his life. In Nova Skvaryava Ivan Franko was staying at the Oleskivs` from July, 14 to September . There he was working on the economics textbook "understandable to students of a high school", started to write the story "Borislav is laughing", collected quite a number of local sayings and songs published in a many volume collection " Galician - Rutheniun Folk Sayings', dreamt of buying a piece of land in Nova Skvaryava and build a hut there, but in vain.


Church of Our Lady Pokrova.
Built in 1934 - 1989

An outstanding scholar, philosophy doctor, natural history professor Yosip Oleskiv contributed greatly to facilitating the life of Ukrainian emigrants in Canada being justly called "Ukrainian Moses' for that.

During WWI many inhabitants of Nova Skvaryava were mobilized to the Austrian army. On June, 19, 1915 a combat between Russian troops based on the line between Motskivna and Shchekotyn and Austrian soldiers advancing from the valleys of Kopan and Korchunok. After preparatory bombardment that started at 4 a.m. and a bloody battle the latter won the victory. Killed Russian soldiers were buried in a common grave by local peasants. Austrian soldiers were buried on a separate cemetery in the village of Glynsk.


Iconostasis church of
Our Lady Pokrova.

In 1930 People's House was opened in a newly built House in the western suburb of the village (Kut). There were a Drama society, and later a Country Land Owner Society there. In 1936 OUN group was organized in Nova Skvaryava, at the wave of national enthusiasm headed by Stepan Kuzmyn. Pylyp Huk, Stepan Yarvorivskiy, Mykola Shavel,Stepan Zavada (Kozhumyaka) become members of group. Quite a number of Nova Skvaryanva inhabitants for Ukrainian freedom in the ranks of OUN, UPA. To immortalize their memory the Monument to Fighters for Ukrainian Independence was built in the center of the village by their successors.

During the WWII many Nova Skvaryava inhabitants fought in the Red Army and quite a number of them were killed in Ukraine and beyond its borders. After the war many Nova Skvartava families were deported to Siberia, GULAG concentration camps, suffered from NKVD (Soviet Secret Police) punitive measures taken against peaceful citizens who supported UPA. It was a typical anti-Ukrainian way of establishing Soviet power followed by taking away lands without any compensation and organization of a kolkhoz (a forced labour society) named after Kirov ( a Soviet Communist party leader killed by his comrades, by order of Stalin). In the 60ies a mill, a sauna, a country club, a school were built in the village.


Guta.
dz .
1997 .

In the August of 1991 conservative Soviet Leaders tried to stop Perestroika process in the Soviet Union that contributed to its disintegration. On August, 24 the same year Nova Skvaryava inhabitants welcomed independence of Ukraine, revival of Ukrainian State lost in the end of the XIYth century. During that period the village all Galician Region suffered under Polish, Austrian, German and Soviet yoke, the last being the most awful. Like all Ukrainian citizens inhabitants of Nova Skvaryava fought for their independence during centuries.

The Kolhoz like everything imposed by Soviet Russia ceased to exist and people of Nova Skvaryava bring up children, raise crops, build churches, sing songs with a radiant hope for better life like their forefathers thousands of years ago.


Monument to the fighters
for independence of Ukraine.
2005-2010